The reality is that Islam at the time of its advent represented a progressive religion which was very much more liberal than traditional christianity or judaism. Just as christianity broke off from a dogmatic & exclusivist judaism in the first century, islam was a reaction against the repressive character of christianity in the middle east during the early middle ages.
You see islam as being stuck in the past, well the reasons for such an appearance have much to do with the politics of the middle east over the last thousand years and the role played by christians in it along with the 'natural conservativism' of most groups. Frankly, as you have commented yourself, family groups tend to resist change, even forcibly if they see the need.
Frankly, to my mind all three principle monotheistic religions must be regarded as in potentia equally problematic. That is an innate feature which arises from the exclusivist view & attitudes each requires of its adherents.
With regard to islam and for reasons beyond the control of most individual muslims, cultural conditions in the islamic world have not been conducive to what we casually call 'modernization' for much of the past 500 years. The christian west has been a significant factor in producing that effect. For much of the islamic world the cultural developments characteristic of the 20th Century didn't begin until around 1950. Under the circumstances, they have been making remarkable progress in the last several decades. But cultural development is never the smooth process of evolutionary progress people like to believe it is. Too many fear the potential of change and the perception of the losses which frequently result. That is only human.
Mark A. Baker